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Micromolecules are such molecules with low molecular weight such as CO2, H2O etc. while macromolecules are molecules of high molecular weights e.g. starch, proteins etc.
Fungi grow best in moist habitats and are found wherever organic matter is present. They are successful group of land organisms, and possess several features in their body and reproduction that adopt them to their habit and terrestrial mode of life. They possess many adaptations for life on land.
Extensive system of fast-spreading hyphae penetrate the substrate and enormously increase the contact and surface area for absorption.
Cytoplasmic flow throughout the hyphae is responsible for their rapid growth and spread.
Chitin in cell wall:
Hyphal cell wall is thick and is formed of chitin. It is more resistant to decay than cellular and lignin found in plant cell wall, to obtain their nutrients.
Saprotrophic fungi produce modified hyphae called Rhizoids. They digest and absorb food. They also increase the surface area for absorption.
Elevated sporangia or conidia:
Sporangia and conidia are produced on elevated sporangiophores and conidiophores. As a result, spores and conidia are dispersed by wind easily.
Reproduction without water:
Hyphae may be modified in such a way as to enable them to reproduce themselves without dependence on external water
Independence of water:
Flagellated cells are absent throughout their life cycle hence are not dependent upon water.
Thick walled spores and Zygote:
Fungi produce thick-walled spore and zygote which helps them to survive on land.
Many fungi can live in hyperosmotic surroundings.
Fungi can tolerate a wide range of temperature from -5 0C to 50 0C. g
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