Biology Grade 11

Biology Past Papers 11th Class Lahore Board

Section A-(MCQs)

i) Use of the living organisms, system or processes in manufacturing and service industry is studies by branch called:                                             (Mark 1)

A.    Social biology
B.    Human biology
C.    Biotechnology
D.    Marine biology
C.    Biotechnology

Section B-(Short Questions)

2 i)Differentiate between micromolecules and macromolecules.                                                                                                                                                           (Marks 2)

    Micromolecules are such molecules with low molecular weight such as CO2, H2O etc. while macromolecules are molecules of high molecular weights e.g. starch, proteins etc.

Section C-(Long Questions)

Q.5 a) Describe land adaptation of fungi.                                                  (Marks 4)

    Fungi grow best in moist habitats and are found wherever organic matter is present. They are successful group of land organisms, and possess several features in their body and reproduction that adopt them to their habit and terrestrial mode of life. They possess many adaptations for life on land.
Surface area:
    Extensive system of fast-spreading hyphae penetrate the substrate and enormously increase the contact and surface area for absorption.
Rapid growth: 
    Cytoplasmic flow throughout the hyphae is responsible for their rapid growth and spread.
Chitin in cell wall: 
    Hyphal cell wall is thick and is formed of chitin. It is more resistant to decay than cellular and lignin found in plant cell wall, to obtain their nutrients.
    Saprotrophic fungi produce modified hyphae called Rhizoids. They digest and absorb food. They also increase the surface area for absorption.
Elevated sporangia or conidia: 
    Sporangia and conidia are produced on elevated sporangiophores and conidiophores. As a result, spores and conidia are dispersed by wind easily.
Reproduction without water:
    Hyphae may be modified in such a way as to enable them to reproduce themselves without dependence on external water
Independence of water:
    Flagellated cells are absent throughout their life cycle hence are not dependent upon water.
Thick walled spores and Zygote:
    Fungi produce thick-walled spore and zygote which helps them to survive on land.
Desiccation Tolerant:
    Many fungi can live in hyperosmotic surroundings.
Temperature tolerance:
    Fungi can tolerate a wide range of temperature from -5 0C to 50 0C.  g

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